Main Article Content
caregiver burden, Schizophrenia, OBQ, Objective and subjective burden
Background: The family members of schizophrenic patients frequently report that caring for the patient imposes a great burden on them and hampers the typical structure and functioning of the family to the detriment of its members.
Objectives: To assess the level of the burden of care (objective and subjective) shouldered by the primary caregivers of schizophrenic patients and to determine the relationship between the objective and subjective level of such burdens.
Method: A descriptive analytical study was conducted on a purposive sample of 50 primary caregivers of schizophrenic patients who were hospitalized in Ibn-Rushd Psychiatric Teaching Hospital in Baghdad. The data were gathered utilizing self-administered questionnaires, namely, the objective burden questionnaire (OBQ), the subjective distress questionnaire (SDQ), and the self-reporting questionnaire (SRQ 20).
Results: It was revealed that the primary caregivers of schizophrenic patients experienced high levels of objective and subjective burdens. Significant differences were observed in the relationships between the objective and subjective burdens and between objective burdens and the SRQ 20 at p≤0.05 and p≤0.01, respectively.
Conclusions: Schizophrenia affects the interactions and routine among family members much more substantially than their income and leisure.
2. Sadock BJ. Kaplan & Sadock’s synopsis of psychiatry: behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry. 10th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2007. p. 468.
3. Gill D. Hughes’ outline of modern psychiatry. 5th Ed. Hertfordshire
Partnership NHS Foundation Trust; 2007. p. 41.
4. Awad AG, Voruganti LN. The burden of schizophrenia on caregivers: a review. Pharmacoeconomics. 2008;26(2):149-62.
5. Gutiérrez-Maldonado J, Caqueo-Urízar A, Kavanagh DJ. Burden of care and general health in families of patients with schizophrenia. Soci psych psych epid. 2005 Nov;40(11):899-904.
6. Al-Juboori AK, Mohammed SH. The subjective distress among family
caregivers of schizophrenic patients. Tikrit Med J. 2008;14(1):139-45.
7. Al-Juboori AK. Nursing assessment of care of schizophrenic patients upon their families: a dissertation. PhD thesis , Baghdad University.2001:46-54.
8. Al-Juboori AK, Hashim AN. Nursing assessment of burden care of mentally ill patients. Sci J Nursing. 2002;15(1):58-61.
9. Greenberg JS, Kim HW, Greenley JR. Factors associated with subjective burden in siblings bf adults with severe mental illness. Am J Orthopsych. 1997 April;67(2):231-41.
10. World Health Organization. Iraq Mental Health Survey 2006/7. p 25.
11. Mufeed M, Numan S. Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ 20). Development of an Arabic version. Unpublished (Personal Communication).
12. Mangen P. Sociology and mental health: an Introduction for nurses and other caregivers. 1st ed. New York: Huntsman Offset Printing Re Ltd.; 1982. p. 96-105.
13. Cook JA. Who “mothers” the chronically mentally ill? Fam Relat. 1988;37:42-9.
14. Karanci AN. Caregivers of Turkish schizophrenic patients: Causal attributions, burden & attitudes to help from the health professionals. Soc Psych Psych Epid. 1995 Nov;30(6):261-8.
15. Grad J, Sainsbury P. Mental illness and the family. Lancet. 1993;1:544-7.
16. Magliano L, Fadden 0, Economou M, Held T, Xavier M,
Guarneri M, Malangone C, Marasco C, Maj M. Family burden and coping strategies in schizophrenia 1-year follow-up data from the BIOMED 1 study. Soc Psych Psych Epid. 2000;35:109-15.
17. Tennakoon L, Faimon D, Doku V, O’ceallaigh S, Soni W, Santarnaria M, Kuipers E, Sharma I. Experience of care giving: relatives of people experiencing a first episode of psychosis. Brit J Psychiatr. 2000;177:529-33.
18. Lefley HP. Family burden and family stigma in major mental illness. Amer Psycholo. 1989;44:556-60.
19. Platt S, Weyman A, Hirsch S. Social behavior assessment schedule (SBAS). 2nd ed. (revised). London: Department of psychiatry, Charring Cross Hospital; 1978. p. 438.
20. Pereira MG, de-Almeida JM. The repercussion of mental disease in the family: A study of family members of psychotic patients. Acta Med Part. 1999 April-June;12(4-6):161-8.
21. Steketec G. Disability and family burden in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Can J of Psychia. 1997 Nov;42(9):919-28.