COVID-19 Vaccine–Related Misinformation in The Iraqi Community COVID-19 Vaccine-Related Misinformation in The Iraqi Community

Main Article Content

Al-Rubaye Ali Kadhim
Dhurgham A Abdulwahid
Abbas Ejbary Kawad
Laith Alrubaye
Aymen Albadran


COVID-19 Vaccine, Misinformation, Knowledge, Iraq


Background: The recent coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has created a serious public health concern worldwide. Shortly after the successful mapping of the genome sequence of SARS-CoV-2 and the declaration of the pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) in early 2020, scientists and pharmaceutical companies raced against time in efforts to develop vaccines. As of the 18th of February 2021, the WHO had approved at least seven different vaccines to be rolled out worldwide. However, despite the seriousness of the pandemic and its rapid spread, Iraqi society still refrains from taking vaccines against the disease. Although there is an increase in vaccination with the availability of coronavirus vaccines in Iraq, the rate remains below the level required to achieve herd immunity in Iraqi society soon.

Objectives: To assess the spread of COVID-19 vaccine related misinformation in the Iraqi community.

Methods: A cross-sectional study based on an internet survey that contained a 14-item questionnaire to assess public knowledge related to the COVID-19 vaccine.

Results: A total of 1066 participants completed the survey questionnaire. The study showed a high level of COVID-19 vaccine–related misinformation in the Iraqi community. Individuals who are unemployed with low education levels and living in rural areas, those who did not take the vaccine, and those who were unwilling to advise others to take the vaccine had significantly increased the level of COVID-19 vaccine–related misinformation. In addition, this study found that the most common sources of information among participants were websites and social media.

Conclusions: COVID-19 vaccine–related misinformation is widely spread. This aspect must be considered in any planned public measure that aims to control the pandemic.

Abstract 283 | Full text PDF Downloads 105


1. Pal M, Berhanu G, Desalegn C, Kandi V. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2): An Update. Cureus. 2020;2. doi:10.7759/cureus.7423
2. World Health Organization. WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard. 2021 [cited 11 May 2021]. Available:
3. Worldometer. 2021 [cited 11 May 2021]. Available:
4. Phua J, Weng L, Ling L, et al. In tensive care management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): challenges and recommendations. Lancet Respir Med. 2020;8(5):506-17. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30161-2.
5. Nicola M, Alsafi Z, Sohrabi C, et al. The socio-economic implications of the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19): A review. International Journal of Surgery.2020;78:185-93. doi:
6. Nouvellet, P., Bhatia, S., Cori, A. et al. Reduction in mobility and COVID-19 transmission. Nat Commun 12, 1090 (2021).
7. World Health Organization. Health topics: Coronavirus Disease. 2021 [cited 11 May 2021]. Available:
8. Ehreth J. The value of vaccination: a global perspective. Vaccine. 2003;21(27):4105-17. doi:
9. CDC, vaccine and immunization. 2021 [cited 11 May 2021]. Available:
10. CDC, Vaccine Testing and the Approval Process. [cited the 11th of May 2021]. Available:
11. Wu F, Zhao S, Yu B, Chen Y-M, Wang W, Song Z-G, et al. A new coronavirus associated with human respiratory disease in China. Nature. 2020;579(7798):265-9. doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2008-3.
12. World Health Organization. COVID-19 VACCINES [cited 11 May 2021]. Available:
13. EMRO WHO websites. Countries- Iraq. [cited the 11th of May 2021]. Available
14. 14 World Health Organization. WHO Health Emergency Dashboard [cited the 11th of May 2021]. Available:
15. 15 Al-Rubaye Ali Kadhim, Dhurgham A Abdulwahid, Albadran Aymen, Ejbary Abbas, Alrubaiy Laith. Assessment of COVID-19 Related Misinformation among the Community in Basrah, Iraq. Iraqi Natl J Med 2020;2(3):12–8.
16. Gadoth A, Halbrook M, Martin-Blais R, Gray A, Tobin NH, Ferbas KG, et al. Assessment of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among healthcare workers in Los Angeles. medRxiv. 2020 Nov 19;2020.11.18.20234468.
17. Callaghan T, Moghtaderi A, Lueck JA, Hotez P, Strych U, Dor A, et al. Correlates and disparities of intention to vaccinate against COVID-19. Soc Sci Med. 2021 the 1st of March;272:113638.
18. Bartsch SM, O'Shea KJ, Ferguson MC, Bottazzi ME, Wedlock PT, Strych U, et al. Vaccine Efficacy Needed for a COVID-19 Coronavirus Vaccine to Prevent or Stop an Epidemic as the Sole Intervention. Am J Prev Med. 2020 the 1st of October;59(4):493–503.

Similar Articles

1-10 of 74

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.