Perioperative Risk Factors & Outcome After Pancreatico-Duodenectomy (Whipple Procedure) Perioperative Risk Factors & Outcome After Pancreatico-Duodenectomy (Whipple Procedure)

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Mustafa M. Fakhir
Issam Mardan
Ali Dawood


Pancreatico-Duodenectomy, Whipple Procedure,, Periampullary cancers, basrah


Background: Periampullary cancers have poor prognosis, mainly due to late diagnosis. Although pancreaticoduodenectomy is considered the only possible curative option for these cancers, it is associated with high morbidity and mortality.

Aim: To identify the risk factors associated with postoperative morbidity and mortality.

Patients and Methods: Data were prospectively collected from the 44 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy for periampullary cancers in Al-Sader Teaching Hospital, Basrah, Iraq, from June 2017 to June 2020. These variables were reviewed according to developing postoperative morbidity and mortality. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 23 and the chi-squared or Fisher’s exact (FE) test. Any level of significance below 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Increased age and the presence of preoperative co-morbidities are independent predictors of developing postoperative morbidity and mortality. The most common postoperative complications leading to mortality are pulmonary embolisms and pancreatic leaks.

Conclusion: Improvement in the management of comorbidities and perioperative care are essential in decreasing postoperative morbidity and mortality.

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