Main Article Content
Angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor-A, childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute lymphoblastic risk groups
Background: Cancer angiogenesis demonstrates an important role in the progression and pathogenesis of blood malignant disorders including acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A is one of the most effective elements of endothelial cell growth; it promotes vascular permeability of endothelial cells and provides the new vasculature with oxygen and nutrients. Higher VEGF-A levels in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is associated with poorer patient outcomes.
Aim of the study: to assess the level of VEGF-A in plasma of children with ALL.
Subject and method: Forty children with ALL and 40 healthy children as control were enrolled in this study conducted at the Oncology Unit in Basrah Children’s Hospital from Oct 2019 to March 2020. Plasma VEGF-A level was evaluated using ELISA assay.
Results: The plasma level of VEGF-A is higher in ALL children than those in the control (p < 0.001). Moreover, the plasma VEGF-A level in the high-risk group (HRG) is higher than that in the standard risk group (SRG).
Conclusion: The significantly higher level of plasma VEGF-A in ALL children compared to the healthy ones may demonstrate the role of VEGF-A in stimulating angiogenesis in pediatric ALL.
2. Masetti R, Pession A. First-line treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia with pegasparaginase. Biol targets Ther. 2009;3:359.
3. Haouas H. Angiogenesis and acute myeloid leukemia. Hematology. 2014;19(6):311–23.
4. Abdelaal AA, Afify RAA, Zaher AE, Elgammal MM, Atef AM. Study of prognostic significance of marrow angiogenesis assessment in patients with de novo acute leukemia. Hematology. 2015;20(9):504–10.
5. Palmer BF, Clegg DJ. Oxygen sensing and metabolic homeostasis. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2014;397(1–2):51–8.
6. Podar K, Anderson KC. The pathophysiologic role of VEGF in hematologic malignancies: therapeutic implications. Blood. 2005;105(4):1383–95.
7. Medinger M, Passweg J. Role of tumour angiogenesis in haematological malignancies. Swiss Med Wkly. 2014;144(4546).
8. Mizia-Malarz A, Sobol-Milejska G. Assessment of angiogenesis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia based on serum vascular endothelial growth factor assay. Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol. 2017 Jul 1;38(3):321–5.
9. Jørgensen JM, Sørensen FB, Bendix K, Nielsen JL, Funder A, Karkkainen MJ, et al. Expression level, tissue distribution pattern, and prognostic impact of vascular endothelial growth factors VEGF and VEGF-C and their receptors Flt-1, KDR, and Flt-4 in different subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Leuk Lymphoma. 2009;50(10):1647–60.
10. Avramis IA, Panosyan EH, Dorey F, Holcenberg JS, Avramis VI. Correlation between high vascular endothelial growth factor-A serum levels and treatment outcome in patients with standard-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from Children’s Oncology Group Study CCG-1962. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12(23):6978–84.
11. Sanaat Z, Khalili R, Almasi S, Aliparasti MR, Tavangar S-M, Movasaghpoor A, et al. Does chemotherapy change expression of VEGF A&C and MVD in acute myeloid leukemia? Int J Hematol Stem Cell Res. 2014;8(3):24.
12. Stachel D, Albert M, Meilbeck R, Paulides M, Schmid I. Expression of angiogenic factors in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Oncol Rep. 2007;17(1):147–52.
13. Chand R, Chandra H, Chandra S, Verma SK. Role of microvessel density and vascular endothelial growth factor in angiogenesis of hematological malignancies. Bone Marrow Res. 2016;2016.
14. Zeng D, Wang J, Kong P, Chang C, Li J, Li J. Ginsenoside Rg3 inhibits HIF-1α and VEGF expression in patient with acute leukemia via inhibiting the activation of PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 pathways. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014;7(5):2172.