Correlation of Placental Weight with Neonatal Weight and HbA1c in Normal Sudanese Pregnant Ladies in Alban-Jaded Teaching Hospital Correlation of Placental Weight with Neonatal Weight and HbA1c

Main Article Content

Ibrahim Ali
Asim Osman
Wala Ahmed

Keywords

HbA1c, glucose level, birth Weight, placental weight

Abstract

Background: The placenta is a life-supporting organ for the growing fetus. Several studies have highlighted the relationship between placental weight and neonatal birth weight; however, the role of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) has not been addressed. Aim: The study aimed to determine the relationship between the placental weight, neonatal birth weight, and HbA1c at term pregnancy in a Sudanese hospital. Methods: This was a cross-sectional hospital-based study conducted at Al Ban-Jaded Hospital between November and December 2022. Data, including the gestational age at delivery (in weeks), parity, mode of delivery, fetal birth weight, placental weight, fetal gender, and presence or absence of maternal medical diseases, was obtained from 60 singleton term deliveries who met the inclusion criteria for the study. The tested data was analyzed using SPSS version 25, and t-test was used to compare the statistical significance (P value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant). Results: The mean age was 27.02 ± 6.8 years. The mean HbA1C was 5.98% ± 0.39% (5.2%–6.9%). Glycated hemoglobin was elevated (≥5.7%) in the majority (46, 76.7%) of pregnancies. The mean placental weight was 290 ± 106 g (100 g–700 g), while the mean birth weight was 3.00 kg ± 0.36 kg (2.3 kg–3.8 kg), and the placental/birth weight ratio was 9.6%. There was a significant positive correlation between neonatal weight and placental weight (r=0.514, P value=0.000). Also, neonatal weight and placental weight had a significant positive correlation with HbA1C (r=0.657, P value=0.000). Placental weight and neonatal birth weight significantly increased with the gestational age of neonates (P value <0.05), with a slight drop noted in term gestation. Conclusions: There is a positive correlation between placental weight and birth weight of the neonate in pregnancies with high maternal HbA1C, and placental weight and birth weight were higher than in pregnancies with normal maternal HbA1C.

Abstract 310 | Full text PDF Downloads 81

References

1. Dolinoy DC, Huang D, Jirtle RL. Maternal nutrient supplementation counteracts bisphenol A-induced DNA hypomethylation in early development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2007 Aug 7;104(32):13056-61.
2. Pardi G, Marconi AM & Cetin I (2002) Placental-fetal interrelationship in IUGR fetuses, a review. Placenta, 23, Suppl A, 16, S136–S141.
3. Ruiz-Palacios M, Ruiz-Alcaraz AJ, Sanchez-Campillo M, Larqué E. Role of insulin in placental transport of nutrients in gestational diabetes mellitus. Annals of Nutrition and metabolism. 2017;70(1):16-25.
4. Murphy VE, Smith R, Giles WB, Clifton VL. Endocrine regulation of human fetal growth: the role of the mother, placenta, and fetus. Endocrine reviews. 2006 Apr 1;27(2):141-69.
5. Taricco E, Radaelli T, De Santis MN, Cetin I. Foetal and placental weights in relation to maternal characteristics in gestational diabetes. Placenta. 2003 Apr 1;24(4):343-7.
6. Heinonen S, Taipale P & Saarikoski S. Weights of placentae from small-for gestational age infants revisited. Placenta.2001, 22, 399–404.
7. D'Silva A, Fyfe R, Hyett J. First trimester prediction and prevention of adverse pregnancy outcomes related to poor placentation. Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2017 Dec 1; 29(6):367-74.
8. Shalayel, M.H.F.; Ahmad, S.A.M.; Khattab, A.H.; Satti, G.M.H. Frequency of gestational diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in urban Sudanese pregnant women in the third trimester. Sudan J. Med. Sci. 2012, 7, 101–103.
9. Khattab, A.; Satti, G.; Shalayel, M.; Ahmed, S. Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in pregnant Sudanese women in the third trimester. Sudan Med. Monit. 2007, 2, 59–61.
10. Mukesh M. Agarwal. Gestational Diabetes in the Arab Gulf Countries: Sitting on a Land-Mine. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 9270
11. David B. Sacks, Mark Arnold, George L. Bakris, David E. Bruns, Andrea Rita Horvath,M. Sue Kirkman, Ake Lernmark,Boyd E. Metzger,David M. Nathan: Guidelines and recommendations for laboratory analysis in the diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus. Clin Chem 2002; 48:436-72
12. International Expert Committee report on the role of the A1c assay in the diagnosis of diabetes. Diabetes Care 2009; 32(7): 1327-34.
13. Weykamp C, John WG, Mosca A: A Review of the Challenge in Measuring Hemoglobin A1c. J Diabetes Sci Technol 2009 May ; 3(3): 439-445.
14. Use of Glycated Haemoglobin (Hb A1c) in the Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus: Abbreviated Report of a WHO Consultation. World Health Organization 2011 – Geneva , Switzerland.
15. Temple, R., Aldridge, V., Greenwood, R., Heyburn, P., Sampson, M., & Stanley, K. (2002). Association between outcome of pregnancy and glycaemic control in early pregnancy in type 1 diabetes: population based study. Bmj, 325(7375), 1275-1276.
16. Lowe, L. P., Metzger, B. E., Dyer, A. R., Lowe, J., McCance, D. R., Lappin, T. R., ... & Oats, J. J. (2012). Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study: associations of maternal A1C and glucose with pregnancy outcomes. Diabetes care, 35(3), 574-580.
17. Weykamp, C. (2013). HbA1c: a review of analytical and clinical aspects. Annals of laboratory medicine, 33(6), 393-400.
18. Lao TT, Lee CP & Wong WM, Placental weight to birth weight ratio is increased in mild gestational glucose intolerance. Placenta, 1997, 18, 227–230
19. Cunningham FG, Leveno KJ, Bloom SL, Hauth JC, Gilstrap LC, III, Wenstrom KD. Williams Obstetrics. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw- Hill; 2005. Implantation, embryogenesis and placental development; pp. 39–90
20. Panti AA, Ekele BA, Nwobodo EI, Yakubu A. The relationship between the weight of the placenta and birth weight of the neonate in a Nigerian Hospital. Nigerian medical journal: journal of the Nigeria Medical Association. 2012 Apr-Jun;53(2):80-84.
21. Perry IJ, Beevers DG, Whincup PH, Bareford D. Predictor of ratio of placental weight to fetal weight in multiethnic community. BMJ. 1995;310:436–9.
22. Little RE, Zadorozhnaja TD, Hulchiy OP, Mendel NA, Shkyryak-Nyzhnyk ZA, Chyslovska N, et al. Placental weight and its ratio to birthweight in a Ukrainian city. Early Hum Dev. 2003;71:117–27.
23. Barker DJ, Bull AR, Osmond C, Simmonds SJ. Fetal and placental size and risk of hypertension in adult life. BMJ. 1990;301:259–62.
24. Adinma JI, Agbai AO. Foetal birth weight in Africa. J Obstet Gynaecol. 1995;15:295–7.
25. Leary SD, Godfrey KM, Greenaway LJ, Davill VA, Fall CH. Contribution of the umbilical cord and membranes to untrimmed placental weight. Placenta. 2003; 24:276–8.
26. Lurie S, Feinstein M, Mamet Y. Human fetal-placental weight ratio in normal singleton near-term pregnancies. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 1999;48:155–7.
27. Janthanaphan M, Kor-Anantakul O, Geater A. Placental weight and its ratio to birth weight in normal pregnancy at Songkhlanagarind Hospital. J Med Assoc Thai. 2006;89:130–7.
28. Salafia CM, Zhang J, Miller RK, Charles AK, Shrout P, Sun W. Do placental growth patterns affect birth weight for given placental weight. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2007;79:281–8.
29. Strøm‐Roum EM, Haavaldsen C, Tanbo TG, Eskild A. Placental weight relative to birthweight in pregnancies with maternal diabetes mellitus. Acta Obst et Gynecol Scand. 2013 Jul;92(7):783-9.
30. Baptiste-Roberts K, Salafia CM, Nicholson WK, Duggan A, Wang NY, Brancati FL. Maternal risk factors for abnormal placental growth: the national collaborative perinatal project. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2008;8:44

Similar Articles

1-10 of 32

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

<< < 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 > >>